Purification plants with activated sludge classic scheme

The active sludge biological process refers to a type of aerobic treatment conducted by more or less prolonged aeration of the wastewater in a biological reactor in the presence of a microbial population (biomass).
In activated sludge plants, with suspended biomass, the bacterial populations responsible for the cleaning treatment are present in the form of flakes kept in suspension through the air blower (if aerated reactors) or by mixer (if anoxic or anaerobic reactors).

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Integrated biological reactors with membrane filtration process, MBR

The Membrane BioReactor is a biological water filtration plant combining a traditional cleaning process on activated sludge with a membrane separation system (generally microfiltration or ultrafiltration), replacing a normal secondary separator. The system is extremely useful as it reaches high activated sludge concentrations in the biological reactor (10-15 kgSS/m3), which can’t be reached in traditional systems. The use of membranes instead of a separators avoids possible sludge leakages, extremely frequent in industrial plants, often leading to many problems (variable immediate capacities with the consequent increase of the surface hydraulic load, presence of light sludge, filament bacteria bulking, etc).

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Moving bed biofilm reactors (MBBR)

The Moving-Bed Biofilm Reactor (MBBR) is a moving bed plant, leading to the activated sludge biological clearing. These plants, defined biomass reactors, are different from suspended traditional systems: in fact the activated sludge within the reaction, oxidation/nitrification section, is not suspended in the water to be treated, but adheres to a series of plastic material carriers, exhibiting a high specific surface protection, when suspended and mobile inside the bioreactor. Such carriers are in plastics, whose density is similar to the water density, and they are suspended through the air inflow from the vessel bottom through lowers.

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Sequencing batch reactors (SBR)

Sequencing batch reactors (SBR) are discontinuous flow treatment units where the different treatment steps are finalized within a single vessel. No development in space as in the case of traditional activated sludge units, where the flow is pumped to the following vessel, but they are time-oriented units, leading to flow and volume changes in the vessel in compliance with the different operating strategies.

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The physico-chemical wastewater treatments plant allow the removal of polluants, usually poorly biodegradable, present in the water, through the addition of chemicals.
These additives, commonly called "reagents", in some pH conditions, react with the pollutants, making them insoluble and favoring their abatement by coagulation, precipitation and or neutralization.

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